Vadyba/Journal of Management

Vadyba/Journal of Management is the international, peer-reviewed scientific journal is published by Lithuania Business University of Applied Sciences, the leading institution of research in business management, economics and technology in Lithuania.

The aim of the journal is to promote exchange in scientific knowledge by publishing scientific articles in social sciences areas: management and administration, business studies, public administration, economic, as well as application oriented, practically and / or theoretically associated with the business, its infrastructure, regional development and technology fields.

Frequency. Journal is published twice a year: in May and October.

Language of the article - English.

Indexing. The journal is indexed by the international databases: EBSCO, IndexCopernicus, CEEOL. 

Currently is under the indexing process with SCOPUS. 


Journal issue (Vol 30, No. 1) has been released
The next issue of the Journal (Vol. 31, No. 2) will be released in October 2017.
Please, provide the articles before 15 September 2017.
Vadyba/ Journal of Managemet  (print)  ISSN 1648-7974/ (online) ISSN 2424-399X
Responsible editor: Prof. dr. (HP) Valentinas Navickas, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)


Mailing Address

Journal editorial office
Vadyba/ Journal of Managemet  

Lithuania Business University of Applied Sciences
Turgaus g. 21,
Klaipeda, LT- 91249

Principal Contact

Assoc. prof.  Jurgita Martinkienė
Lithuania Business University of Applied Sciences

Turgaus g. 21,
Klaipeda, LT- 91249

Phone: +370 46 311 099

Support Contact

Assoc. prof.  Jurgita Martinkienė
Phone: +370 46 311 099

ISSN 2424-399X, 2017 Journal of Management, No. 1(30)


Managing Editor

  • Prof. dr. Angele Lileikiene, SiauliaiUniversity (Lithuania)
  • Prof. dr. Ilona Skackauskiene, VilniusGediminasTechnicalUniversity (Lithuania)

Editorial Board

  • Prof. habil. dr. Arunas Lapinskas, PetersburgStateTransportUniversity (Russia)
  • Prof. habil. dr. Borisas Melnikas, VilniusGediminasTechnicalUniversity (Lithuania)
  • Prof. habil. dr. Barbara Maria Lubas, WarsawManagementSchool (Poland)
  • Prof. Gideon Falk, PurdueUniversity Calumet (USA)
  • Prof. Van de Boom, Jensen Fontys Hogeschool Communicatie (Holland)
  • Prof. dr. Vitalijus Denisovas, KlaipedaUniversity (Lithuania)
  • Prof. dr. Maria Fekete-Farkas, SzentIstvanUniversity (Hungary)
  • Prof. dr. Irena Bakanauskiene, VytautasMagnusUniversity (Lithuania)
  • Prof. dr. Ilona Skackauskiene, VilniusGediminasTechnicalUniversity (Lithuania)
  • Assoc. prof. Eng. Waldemar Gajda, WarsawManagementSchool (Poland)
  • Assoc. prof. Deimena Kiyak, KlaipedaUniversity (Lithuania)
  • Assoc. prof. Marios Socratous, The PhilipsCollege (Cyprus)
  • Assoc. prof. Szergej Vinogradov, SzentIstvánUniversity (Hungary)
  • Assoc. prof. Vass Laslo, BudapestComunicationSchool (Hungary)
  • Assoc. prof. Akvile Cibinskiene, KaunasUniversity of Technology (Lithuania)
  • Assoc. prof. Emilia Krajnakova, University of Alexander Dubcek in Trencin (Slovakia)
  • Assoc. prof. Rita Remeikienė, Mykolas Romeris University (Lithuania) 


The aim of the journal Vadyba/Journal of Management  (V/JOM) to promote exchange in scientific knowledge by publishing scientific articles in social sciences areas: management and administration, business studies, public administration, economic, as well as application oriented, practically and / or theoretically associated with the business, its infrastructure,  regional development and technology fields.

The journal provides a platform to share papers for scientists, academicians and professionals of scientific institutions from around the world.

Originality. Presented articles must be original, not published elsewhere and should correspond with the aims and scope of the journal.

Peer Review. All manuscripts are peer-reviewed by two experts; double-blind review system is applied.

Section Policies

Original Articles

  • Open Submissions
  • Indexed
  • Peer Reviewed

Book Reviews

  • Open Submissions
  • Indexed

PhD Reviews

  • Open Submissions
  • Indexed

Peer Review Process

Manuscripts submitted to Vadyba/Journal of Management are subject to peer review to maintain the standards of the journal, promote rigorous research within the fields and to offer authors constructive feedback on their submissions.

Vadyba/Journal of Management has a 'double blind' review process: Authors are not told who reviewed their paper, and referees do not know the name of the authors whose papers they review. The peer referees’ identity remains unknown to the authors.

Manuscripts are sent out for review electronically, and all correspondence takes place in the journal system or via e-mail. Although the peer review process is accelerated by the use of electronic communication, traditional, high-quality peer-review standards are applied to all manuscripts submitted to the journal.

Peer reviewers are asked to give their opinion on a number of issues pertinent to the quality and suitability of a paper, and to judge papers on grounds of originality and importance. We pride ourselves on providing constructive and formative feedback to authors.

Reviewer Guidelines Reviewers of the journal are asked to consider the following points during their evaluation:

  • Does the paper have clear aims and objectives / research questions that can be achieved within the scope of the journal paper?
  • Does the paper make a contribution to knowledge?
  • Is the work suitably grounded in the literature to justify its contribution and frame the analysis/evaluation?
     Is the research/evaluation methodology justified, clear and appropriate? (Including ethical
  • considerations / approval where appropriate)
  • Does the analysis/ evaluation have a clear flow and logical argument?
  • Does the analysis/evaluation link to an appropriate discussion and conclusions?
  • Is it presented in a way which is suitable for the journal’s international audience?

 Peer reviewers will have five possible options, for any paper:

  • Accept manuscript (i.e. no need for any revision).
  • Accept after revision (i.e. accepted if the author makes the requested revisions).
  • Revise and resubmit (i.e. accepted or rejected after revisions have been made - paper will be sent out for another peer review round).
  • Reject manuscript (i.e. if the manuscript is not sufficiently developed for publication).
  • See comments (i.e. if the reviewer cannot choose from any of the above).

In addition, papers may be returned to authors by the Editors prior to review, if judged to be out of scope, out of the limits of the word length guidance or not sufficiently prepared for publication.
To facilitate rapid publication, authors are given a maximum of 6 weeks for revision. After 6 weeks, revised manuscripts will normally be considered new submissions.

Author Self-Archiving

Authors retain copyright of their work published in Vadyba/Journal of Management (V/JOM), with first publication rights granted to Lithuania Business University of Applied Sciences (LBUAS).

Authors are permitted and encouraged to post items submitted to this journal on personal or institutional websites, prior to and after publication (while providing the bibliographic details of that publication).

Publication fee

The Open Access model used for Vadyba/Journal of Management (V/JOM) implies that production costs are mainly covered by publication fees. We strive to keep publication fees at a minimum. 

The publication of an article in the journal incurs a publication charge of 100€.

The total sum will be charged to the author(s) upon acceptance of his/her article.

Author Guidelines

Requirements for the manuscripts and their formalization

General requirements

Articles submitted to the Editorial Board must be professionally edited, without spelling, punctuation and style errors. The articles must use scientific language.

Articles shall be written English.

Length of the manuscript– 6-8 or more A4 format pages.

The manuscripts have to be prepared by Microsoft Word, font – Times New Roman.

Page setup: top and bottom, left and right margins – 2.0 cm.

The text is written in single line spacing, aligned Justify, using an automatic transfer words (hyphenate), 1st line of paragraph indented – 0,5 cm.

Sections of the manuscript:

  • The title of the article. Article’s author, institution, which the author is representing. E-mail of the author of the article.
  • Abstract with the main words in the language of the article. The Abstract should briefly cover the contents of the article; specify the aspect of how the problem will be analysed. The text of the Abstract must be clear and concise. The Abstract must contain at least 2000 characters.
  • Keywords – these are the words that express the most important features of the topic. Five or six keywords of the article must be included in the Lithuanian National M. Mazvydas library records of authoritative names and subjects. It is possible to check if the keyword is included in this list in the website of the library: , by specifying the “topic, subject (lit)”  (in Lithuanian) and “topic, subject (eng)” (in English) in the search field.
  • Introduction, which formulates the purpose of the scientific study, discusses the question of the study, its novelty and degree of research, specifies the object of the study, objectives and methods.
  • Analysis – article material. The sub-sections of the article are unnumbered.
  • Conclusions. Unnumbered.
  • References. Unnumbered. References in the body of the article should be cited in parenthesis by indicating the surnames of the authors and year, e.g. (Cooper 2010), (Cleland J.; Kaufmann, G. 2016). If an internet source does not have an author, the link is placed only in the main text in parenthesis. Letters “p” and “pp” are not written next to the pages.
  • Short CV of the authors, which consists of: name, surname of the authors. Degree. Work. Occupation. Research direction. Address. Telephone. Other information about the author. The author CV must include up to 3000 characters.

The title (CAPITAL letters, centered – 14 pt Bold)

  • title of the article: in capital letters, left alignment, size – 14 pt., Bold.
  • author’s name, surname: in lowercase letters, left alignment, size – 12 pt., Bold.
  • institution name: in lowercase letters, left alignment, 10 pt., Italic.
  • e-mail: lowercase letters, left alignment, 10 pt., Italic.
  • the title should be short (a maximum of 10 words);
  • it should  reflect the results of the research, i.e. the research objective rather than the research process;
  • in the title, avoid using words such as “analysis”, “research”, “survey”, “problems”, etc.;

Abstract  [10 pt, Bold, Before 12 pt, After:0]

  • The text of the article’s abstract is in the English language. The text has to contain at least 2000 printed characters (with spaces between symbols). Separate paragraphs do not have to be indented from the left. [8 pt, Justify]
  • KEY WORDS: 5-6 content words, which are separated from each other by commas, have to be indicated [8 pt, Justify, After: 12 pt]

Introduction (11 pt Normal)

The introduction shall state: 

  • the word “Introduction” is written in lower case, aligned to the left, size - 11 pt., font Bold. Space of 6 pt is left below the heading.
  • the problem that was investigated. It is essential to mention all the scientists who work in this field and their specific contribution to the analysed problem;
  • why the problem is of interest;
  • a hypothesis or a scientific problem;
  • the purpose or, if necessary, objectives of the paper;
  • the object and subject of the research;
  • the research methods;
  • the benefits of the research to studies, science and / or business. 
  • recommended volume of articles is 6-8 pages in A4 format. Articles may be written in the English language. 


  • The purpose should be clearly defined and be in line with the title and the conclusons of the paper.
  • The puspose must reflect the result of the research, rather than the research process.
  • Quite often authors arrive at a faulty formulation of the purpose when they use such words as "investigate", "analyse", "assess" or even "examine", "describe", etc.  Such words would be more appropriate to describe the objectives.
  • The purpose should be worded as follows: "To conduct investigation / analysis of ... and to suggest  (to make, produce, frame, prove, etc.) ....." 

Research object / subject

  • The object indicates the field of the research, namely, a business, enterprise, infrastructure subject, etc.
  • The subject indicates the qualities or features of the object that will be researched, e. g. management, motivation, finance, price of goods, etc. 
  •  E. g., the research object is the competitiveness of a company. The research subject includes competitiveness indicators (the sizes and specialisation of companies, payment, assessment, financial indicators, etc.). 

Research methods

The Methods section should specify:

  • the time period of the research;
  • information about experts;
  • calculation of the sample ;
  • number of respondents;
  • data assessment methods;
  • other information related to methods used in the research;
  • Research techniques can be described at the end of the Methods section.
  • In the Methods section, it is inappropriate to list methods suitable for any research, e. g., “...used scientific literature analysis, graphical, monographic, logical extraction, comparison, induction, deduction, etc. methods...”.
  • The research methods should not be called methodology as the latter means the theories and principles of the scientific cognition process, the scientific cognition philosophy and system. The Methods section can describe the methodological principles the research relied on. 

Research results and discussion (11 pt Normal)

  • The main objective of this section  is to present the findings of the scientific research and to  justify their novelty.
  • This section shall include: 
    1. the results and their explanation/interpretation,
    2. or severally: results (as briefly as possible) and explanation / interpretation of the results.
  • Standard scheme of result presentation:
  •  analysis of a theoretical problem and its generalisation;
  •  the obtained research data and comment thereon;
  •  prospects of the phenomenon or recommendations how to change the situation. 

Heading of the chapter[11 pt, Bold, Before:  12 pt, After: 6 pt]

  • Headings of chapters of the article are written in lower case, left-aligned, size - 11 pt, Bold. The space of 12 pt is left above the heading and 6 pt – below it.
  • Body text of the article. Detailed methodology of performance of the work is provided including description of research part, methodology and devices for preparation and analysis, statistical data processing and theoretical reasoning of the work.
  • Also, obtained research results have to be discussed and reasoned by theoretical knowledge. If research of different types was carried out, the chapter may have subchapters. The heading of the subchapter, with the same format as the title of the chapter, is written below the heading of the chapter.
  • Quotation is obligatory to be used and literature references have to be provided in the text. Literature sources are not numbered. Reference to the literature source is written down in the parentheses without comma, e.g. (Virkauskas, 2016) in the text.
  • It is necessary to provide references to images and tables. It can be made while indicating their marking in brackets, e.g. (Table 1) or (Fig. 2). Headlines of tables and images are not written in bold. [10 pt, First line: 0,5 cm]


Images, diagrams and layouts[11 pt, Bold, Before: 12 pt, After: 6 pt]

An image, a diagram or a layout is inserted into the text as a part of the text in the new empty paragraph, wherein it is centered leaving the space of 6 pt above the image and the space of 6 pt below it.

1) the text preceding a figure / table explains why the figure / table is necessary (i. e., what research fact it will illustrate); a reference to the figure/table must be provided in brackets;
2) if there are more than one figure / table, they shall be numbered;
3) explanatory captions to figures / tables: "Subsequent to the analysis of the data in the figure / table... ", or "data in the figure / table   reveal ...".

The headline, which is centered, size 10 pt, font Times New Roman, is written below the image.

  • Images and diagrams have to be clear and legible. They shouldn’t be too large or too small. Layouts and drawings have to be grouped into one object. Small image has to fit in the column (cannot be wider than 8.2 cm) and large figure has to fit in one page (cannot be wider than 17 cm).
  • Images have to be numbered in turn in Arabic numbers; abbreviation “Fig.” in bold is used. Full stop is not written at the end of the image’s headline (Fig. 1). [10 pt, First line: 0,5 cm]

Fig. 1. Limits of the Company’s activity [10 pt, Center, Before: 0, After: 12]

  • Where a figure / table is by somebody else than the author of the article, the reference to the source, just like all the references in the text, shall be given next to its title (not UNDER the figure / table).
  • Where the author used a source to produce a figure/table, before it is described in the text, the specific source shall be indicated and specific changes made by the author shall be detailed.
  • Where a figure/table is made by the author(s) based on their research data, it is not relevant to specify "made by the author(s)"

Tables [11 pt, Bold, Before: 12 pt, After: 6 pt]

  • Table is inserted into the text as a part of the text in the new plain paragraph wherein it is centered. Tables are numbered in turn in Arabic numbers using a word “Table” in bold. It is necessary to provide the headline. Table headlines are written in 10 pt size, Times New Roman font above the table and centered. Full stop is not used at the end of the table’s headline (Table1).
  • The width of the table does not exceed 8.2 cm or 17 cm (may be less as well). Tables must have the headline of the table. The text must contain a reference to the table.
  • The size of data provided in tables is 8-10 pt respectively to the provided information. The first line of paragraphs in tables are not indented [10 pt, First line: 0,5 cm]

Fonts [11 pt, Bold, Before: 12 pt, After: 6 pt]

  • Types and sizes of fonts used in the article are provided in Table 1. In the last column of this table, created titles of styles of article parts, which are used in the template of this article, are provided. If you want to use styles, please, use only those provided in this document. If you do not have required knowledge related to work on styles, it is not obligatory to use these styles.  Style parameters may not be changed! [10 pt, First line: 0,5 cm]

Table 1. Table of sizes and styles of fonts used in the article
[10 pt, , Center,  Before: 12 pt, After: 6 pt]

Mathematical equations[11 pt, Bold, Before: 12 pt, After: 6 pt]

  • Mathematical equations or other mathematical expressions are inserted into the text in the new separate paragraph with the spaces of 6 pt above and below the paragraph.
  • Equations are written using equation editor Microsoft Equation 3.0. Equations are numbered in turn in Arabic numbers in brackets. Numbering is made at the right side of the equation using tabulation. Example.:

  • Herein α- agreed turn corner, dn – direction rate which can be positive or negative. Depending on it, model of the robot moves forward or backwards, k – conditions the size of agreed step. N – the sum of all movement orders until the current moment. [10 pt, First line: 0,5 cm]

Conclusions [11 pt, Bold, Before: 12 pt, After: 6 pt]

Conclusions shall:

  • be consistent with the purpose of the article;
  • reflect the result of each research objective;
  • be specific (preferably include numbers);
  • include recommendations for science, business and / or studies...

The conclusions shall not:

  •  state the facts ("increased", "decreased", etc.);
  •  contain a set of general conclusions.: they should describe revealed regularities, facts, numbers, and new ideas;
  •  avoid unnecessary sentences of the general character  (e. g., "The conducted research and the processed results lead to a conclusion that...");
  •  retell the gist of the article (like in the summary). 
  • Summarized conclusions of the article, which CANNOT be numbered, are provided. [10 pt, First line: 0,5 cm]

Format for citing references

Literature [10 pt, Bold, Before: 12 pt, After: 3 pt]

Literature is provided starting from the surname of the first author. The list of literature is not numbered and provided in ABC order. If website reference does not have any author, the reference is provided only in parentheses in the very text.

The journal uses the APA (American Psychological Association)  sistem of Referencing:

Brown, F., Harris, M.G., and Other, A.N. (1998). Name of paper. In Name (s) of editor(s) (ed.), Name of book in italics, page numbers. Publisher, Place of publication.

Smith, S.E. (2010). Name of book in italics, page or chapter nubers if relevant. Publisher, Place of publication.

Smith, S.E. and Jones, L.Q. (2011). Name of paper. Name of journal in italics, volume (number), page numbers.

Smith, S.E. and Jones, L.Q. (2015). Name of paper. Name of journal in italics, volume (number), page numbers. [revised 2015 04 29], http://xxxx. [9 pt, Hanging: 0,5 cm]

References [10 pt, Bold, Before: 12 pt, After: 3 pt]

The references in Literature cited shall be arranged in alphabetic order.

  • In the list should be at least 10 sources.
  • Sources in Cyrillic shall be transliterated. You can use the translit converter
  • All internet sources must be interactive.
  • All literature sources cited in the article must be included in the Literature cited section.
  • Sources that were not used in the text may not be included in the Literature cited.
  • Recommendations:

Information about the author (in English only) (9pt Normal) 

Short CV of the author (-s) (not more than 3000 printing characters) is written herein. Name Surname, academic degree, institution (-s), position. Field of scientific research. Scientific publications. Carried out scientific research. Address. Phone. E-mail. Other information about the author. [9 pt, First line: 0,5 cm., Before 12 pt.]

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word (doc., docx.) document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 14-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Copyright Notice

Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted Lithuania Business of University Applied Sciences (LBUAS). However, authors are required to transfer copyrights associated with commercial use to the Publisher. 

Authors retain ownership of the copyright for their article, but authors allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute, and/or copy articles in the Vadyba/Journal of Management , so long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.

Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.


The journal is indexed by the international databases: EBSCO, IndexCopernicus, CEEOL.

Publication Ethics and Publication Statement

Vadyba/Journal of Management (V/JOM) is committed to maintaining the highest ethical standards. Our ethic statements are based on COPE’s Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.

In order to provide our readers with the journal of high quality, Vadyba/Journal of Management (V/JOM) is guided by the following principles: 


  • The editor is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the academic record, for having processes in place to assure the quality of the material they publish and for precluding business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards.
  • Editors’ decisions to accept or reject a paper for publication should be based on the paper’s importance, originality and clarity, and the study’s validity and its relevance to the remit of the journal.
  • The editor ensures that appropriate reviewers are selected for submissions (i.e. individuals who are able to judge the work and are free from disqualifying competing interests).
  • The editor has systems in place to give authors the opportunity to make original research articles freely available.
  • The editor has systems to ensure that material submitted to their journal remains confidential while under review.
  • Vadyba/Journal of Management employs the double-blind peer review: reviewers are unaware of the identity of the authors, and authors are also unaware of the identity of reviewers. There are at least three or more reviewers for the total number of articles in each issue.


  • The reviewers of Vadyba/Journal of Management assist the editors in taking the decision of publishing a submitted manuscript. By formulating suggestions to the authors, the reviewers can contribute to the improvement of submitted works.
  • Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.
  • Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Reviewers should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.
  • The reviewers should comment on the originality of submissions and should be alert to redundant publication and plagiarism. 


  • The authors ensure that they have submitted original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
  • Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal is considered as an unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.
  • Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.
  • When an author founds error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to notify the journal editor and cooperate with him to retract or correct the paper.

Online Submissions

Articles should be sent to this email:

If you are considering publishing your article in our journal, please send us following:

  • Your article (please check the template);
  • Letter of guarantee signed by all authors (please check the template of letter of guarantee);
  • Review of article signed by the one scientist of similar science field (please check the template of review).